Further reading

The following documents are recommended reading about the issues of the project:

  • transformative use of ICTs and how to measure it, and
  • regional development and regional innovation cultures.

All resources are available online for free, unless mentioned otherwise.

Author (year) Title Description

Arundel, A. & H. Hollanders (2006)

Searching the forest for the trees: “Missing” indicators of innovation. 2006 Trend Chart Methodology Report

Fifth Trend Chart methodology report, focussing on innovation related areas which are not fully covered yet by the European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS). The goal is to further explore the different dimensions of innovation, thereby identifying areas that are not sufficiently covered yet. New areas where indicators could be included into the Trend Chart are discussed.

Audit Commission (2001)

Change Here! Managing Change to Improve Local Services

The paper seeks to distil the U.K. Audit Commission's learning (through its work with local public service bodies) on both the opportunities and challenges of managing change effectively. It also draws on the insights of successful leaders of change, to help public service managers rise to the challenge of deliving continuous improvement for service users.

BISER Project (2004)

BISER eEurope Regions Benchmarking Report

Report of results of the BISER benchmarking exercise, including discussion of the analytic approach used. The report examines ways how to deal with common problems of benchmarking, with a special focus on comparisons at the sub-national level. It includes concrete recommendations about how to set up a ICT-related benchmarking covering all of Europe’s NUTS2-regions.

Boase, J., Horrigan, J.B., Wellman, B. and L. Rainie (2006)

The Strength of Internet Ties

Report of the findings from a survey into US Americans’ social networks and access to help from contacts, and how both interrelate with use of the Internet. This is part of the PEW Internet & American Life Project’s reports. It is based on two daily tracking surveys on Americans' use of the Internet.

Cabinet Office Performance and Innovation Unit (2001)

Strengthening Leadership in the Public Sector

The document presents the main findings from a project which examined how to ensure effective leadership for public sector organisations in the U.K. – primarily in health, education and local government – so that they are better equipped to deliver key services.

Castells, M., Fernandez-Ardevol, M., Qiu, J. L., & Sey, A. (2004)

The mobile communication society: A cross-cultural analysis of available evidence on the social uses of wireless communication technology

Analytical overview of existing research on the social uses of wireless communication technology. The report seeks to provide a solid empirical basis for an informed discussion of the social uses and social effects of wireless in Europe, the Asian Pacific and the United States.

Craig, J. and B. Greenhill (2005)

Beyond digital divides? The future for ICT in rural areas

This report, published by the Commission for Rural Communities, U.K., traces the rise of broadband and explores the issues it raises today for rural areas. It then goes on to explore three possible scenarios for rural broadband in 2020, with the twin aims of dramatising a variety of future directions and helping rural stakeholders to think creatively about the more immediate responses these futures may require.

Efthimios Tambouris, Konstantinos Tarabanis, Vassilios Peristeras and Naoum Liotas.

Study on Interoperability at Local and Regional Level. Final Version

The aim of this 2007 report is to improve stakeholders’ understanding of the issue of interoperability (IOP) at local and regional levels. It is based on analysis of stakeholders’ needs, IOP good practice cases in Europe, relevant literature and feedback of stakeholders. Issues addressed include: The status of local and regional interoperability in Europe; Key success factors and barriers of local and regional interoperability; Recommendations to different stakeholders.

eEurope Advisory Group (2005)

e-Inclusion: New challenges and policy recommendations

In January 2004, the European Commission asked the newly constituted second section of the eEurope Advisory Group, composed of independent experts, to create two working groups: one on the geographical digital divide, looking at broadband territorial coverage, and one on e-Inclusion. This report was prepared by the latter group, co-ordinated by Daniel Kaplan.

eEurope Advisory Group (2004)

Digital Divide and Broadband Territorial Coverage – Written Recommendations

In January 2004, the European Commission asked the newly constituted second section of the eEurope Advisory Group, composed of independent experts, to create two working groups: one on the geographical digital divide, looking at broadband territorial coverage, and one on e-Inclusion. This report presents the recommendations of the former group.

Florida, R. & I. Tinagli (2004)

Europe in the Creative Age

This report extends the concepts and indicators introduced by Florida in his influential “The Rise of the Creative Class” to the European context. Florida claims that creativity has become a driving force of economic growth. The ability to compete and prosper in the global economy is increasingly determined by countries’ and regions’ ability to attract, retain and develop creative people. The report develops new indicators based on the 3Ts of economic development – Technology, Talent and Tolerance – for 14 European countries and compares them to the United States.

Fraunhofer Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung

Regionale Verteilung von Innovations- und Technologiepotentialen in Deutschland und Europa
(in German)

Extensive study on regional differences in innovative potential in German and European regions (NUTS2 level). Employment rates in Research and Development and number of patent applications are used as proxies for innovative potential.

Gaved, M. and Anderson. B. (2006)

The impact of local ICT initiatives on social capital and quality of life

The paper, published in the Chimera Working Paper series, reviews the evidence for the effects of local ICT initiatives (‘community networks’) on neighbourhood social capital and quality of life.

Gillespie, A., Richardson, R. & J. Cornford (2001)

Regional development and the new economy

The paper explores the implications of information and communications technologies (ICTs), and the so-called “new economy” with which they are associated, for regional development. In particular, the paper is concerned with examining the ways in which ICTs may “change the balance” between centralising and decentralising dynamics in the space-economy.

Goodman, J. (2003)

Mobile telephones and social capital in Poland. A case study with Vodafone Group
(download demands user registration)

The report, which was produced in the context of the “Digital Europe” project, uses the idea of “social capital” – basically the value that people get out of their relationships with others – as a framework for understanding the impacts of the mobile. The focus is on Poland as a case study, a country facing a number of social and economic challenges, and where access to telephone connectivity is low. Here, and across the world where similar conditions prevail, pro-active engagement in addressing the latter of these issues could have a noticeable afffect on the former.

Hofstede, G. (2006)

A summary of my ideas about national culture differences

Based on Hofstede’s influential findings from a large research project into national culture differences across subsidiaries of a multinational corporation (IBM) in 64 countries. Together with other, subsequent studies, Hofstede identified and validated five independent dimensions of national culture differences: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation.

Hollanders, H. (2003)

2003 European Innovation Scoreboard: Technical Paper No 3 – Regional innovation performances

The European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS) has been produced annually since 20001. It focuses on high-tech innovation and provides indicators for tracking the EU’s progress towards the Lisbon goals related to innovation. Indicators are divided into four groups: Human resources for innovation; Creation of new knowledge; Transmission and application of knowledge; and Innovation finance. In 2003, EIS data was calculated for regions as well. This document presents the findings from this exercise.

Horrigan, J. & L. Rainie (2006)

The Internet’s Growing Role in Life’s Major Moments

The study explored how important the Internet has become to users in their everyday lives. To explore this phenomenon, a so-called Major Moments Survey was fielded in March 2005, that repeated elements of an earlier January 2002 survey.

Internatinal Telecommunicatoin Union

World Information Society Report 2006

In response to the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) goals, this report tracks the changing dynamics driving the Information Society worldwide. It includes a newly developed "Digital Opportunity Index" (DOI), which evaluates the opportunity, infrastructure and utilization of ICTs for 180 economies worldwide. The report is addressed to policy-makers and regulators. It shows how this new Index can inform the policy-making process in the critical areas of the digital divide, universal access, gender, and the development of broadband networks. The Report gives practical examples of how the DOI can be used, and highlights projects around the world that are working to meet the commitments made at the WSIS.

James, A. (2005)

Demystifying the role of culture in innovative regional economies

Outline of James’s thesis that used the example of Salt Lake City's Mormon business population in order to gather insight about the exact nature of the relationship between regional culture and the workings of innovative regional economies.

James, Alan (2003)

Regional Culture, Corporate Strategy, and High Tech Innovation: Salt Lake City

In his doctotral thesis, Al James uses the example of Salt Lake City's Mormon business population to gather insight about the exact nature of the relationship between regional culture and the workings of innovative regional economies. His main argument is that, rather than applying some allencompassing abstract notion of 'culture', research needs to unpack the notion of culture, through the recognition of a culture hierarchy made up of: (i) individual corporate cultures; (ii) a regional industrial culture; and (iii) the broader regional culture in which these are set.

Jamie Peck

The Cult of Urban Creativity

A critique of the argument that "cities—like corporations—have become embroiled in an endless 'war for talent', as flows of creative individuals have become the fundamental vectors of innovation-rich growth". The paper takes issue mainly with the work of Richard Florida, author of a number of best-selling books on the creative economy.

John B. Horrigan

A Typology of Information and Communication Technology Users

The Pew Internet & American Life Project conducted a survey designed to classify Americans into different groups of technology users. It found that half of all US adults are only occasional users of modern information gadgetry, while 8% are avid participants in all that digital life has to offer.

Mancinelli, S. and Massimiliano, M. (2007)

SME Performance, Innovation and Networking. Evidence on Complementarities for a Local Economic System

The paper addresses the relevancy of networking activities and R&D as main drivers of productivity performance and output innovation, for small and medium enterprises (SME) playing in a local economic system. The aim is to provide new evidence on the complementary relationships concerning different networking activities and R&D in a local SME oriented system in Northern Italy.

McSweeny, B. (2003)

Is ‘National Culture’ a Myth?

McSweeny provides one of the fiercest critiques of Hofstede’s research. The document consist of two articles by McSweeny and a response to the points of criticism by Hofstede.

Millard, J. & A. Leschly Christensen (2004)

Regional Identity in the Information Society

This report is one of a number that were generated by the BISER project and builds on the findings of a Regional Population Survey (RPS) targeted at a representative sample of more than 11,300 citizens in each of the 28 BISER regions. It assesses how the notion of territorial or regional identity – how the geographical focus or expression of a locality or region is perceived, understood and perhaps acted upon by residents as well as outsiders – is being affected by ICTs.

Musterd, S., M. Bontje, C. Chapain, Z. Kovacs & A. Murie

Accommodating creative knowledge. A literature review from a European perspective

This paper reviews a relevant selection of the literature of the creative knowledge economy. This is done by linking urban and economic transformations with several theoretical debates about what is important for understanding such transformations.

Myers, M. and Tan, F. (2002)

Beyond Models of National Culture in Information Systems Research.

The article reviews existing literature and presents different concepts of national culture. The articles criticises models of national culture and calls for stronger theoretical approaches was well a for improvements in research methodologies.

OECD, Working Party on Indicators for the Information Society (2005)

Guide to Measuring the Information Society

Very useful guide to the state of the art in indicators onICT-related developments in OECD countries. The OECD's Working Party on Indicators for the Information Society has agreed on a number of statistical standards for measuring ICT. These standards, along with information on other efforts to measure the information society, are discussed in this publication.

Parissaki, M. & E. Humphreys (2003)

Regional social capital in Europe

Findings from a project launched by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, which aimed to assess the usefulness of regional social capital (defined as ‘networks, norms, values and understanding within groups’) and its possible role in the improvement of social inclusion and employment. The report provides examples of, and strategies for, regional social capital initiatives in six EU Member States, and discusses implications for policymakers.

Sara Ferlander

The Internet, Social Capital, and Local Community

This dissertation from 2003 is concerned with the extent to which the use of ICT can (re-)create social capital and local community in an urban environment.

Saxenian, A (2005)

From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation: Transnational Communities and Regional Upgrading in India and China

This article examines how Chinese- and Indian-born engineers located in Silicon Valley are accelerating the development of the information technology industries in their home countries—initially by tapping the low-cost skill in their home countries, and over time by contributing to highly localized processes of entrepreneurial experimentation and upgrading, while maintain close ties to the technology and markets in Silicon Valley.

Saxenian, A. (1994)

The Limits of Autarky: Regional Networks and Industrial Adaptation in Silicon Valley and Route 128’

In this essay the author compares California's Silicon Valley and Route 128 in Massachusetts to suggest the limits of the concept of external economies and propose an alternative, network approach to analyzing regional economies.

Steinmueller, E. (2003)

Taking Stock of Socio Economic Research on IST

This document, part of the STAR Issue Report series, assesses current approaches to issues such as the diffusion of new technologies, the productivity paradox, the conflict between the theory of ‘best practice’ and actual practice, and the social contribution of Information Society technologies. It identifies specific limitations of current approaches and illustrates these limitations with case studies drawn from previous STAR research and developed for the purposes of this Issue Report.

Van Bavel, R., Punie, Y., Burgleman, J-C., Tuomi, I., and B. Clements (2004)

ICTs and Social Capital in the Knowledge Society

The report examines the relationship between ICTs and social capital against the backdrop of the Lisbon objectives. It discusses the most relevant arguments put forth during a workshop held in Seville in November 2004, including the three background papers that were commissioned for that occasion. It includes an overview of the relationship between social capital and ICT, elaborates on the 'empowerment vs. balkanisation' debate, problematises the notions of digital divide and death of distance, addresses the relationship between social capital and communities of practice, and concludes with key messages to policy makers and key avenues for future research on ICT and social capital in Europe.

Wennekers, S., Thurik, R., von Stel, A.

Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership

The paper deals with the influence of cultural attitudes towards uncertainty on the rate of business ownership